Effect of Chronic Alcoholism & Smoking in Male Reproductive Function (Paperback)
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Infertility is a global problem and the methods used for its prevention and treatment diametrically differ in various parts of the world. Infertility is seldom, if ever, a physically debilitating disease. It may, however, severely affect the couple's psychological harmony, sexual life, and social function. Even in those societies which made family planning and birth control their official policy and social vogue, the individual couple desiring a child but unable to conceive one feels demeaned, deprived, and bitter (Insler and Lunenfeld, 1993). Benoff et al, (2000) have reported that human sperm concentration and male fertility are declining, and have renewed interest in the role of environmental exposures in the etiology of human male fertility.
Alcoholism is a chronic and usually progressive illness involving the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism is thought to arise from a combination of physiological, psychological, social, and genetic factors. It is characterized by an emotional and often physical drug dependence on alcohol and it may lead to brain damage or early death.
Smoking means inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco. Leaves of the tobacco plant are smoked in various forms. After the drying and curing process, they may be rolled into cigars or shredded for insertion into smoking pipes. Cigarette, the most popular method of smoking, consists of finely shredded tobacco rolled in lightweight paper. About 45 million people in the United States smoke 480 billion cigarettes each year. Smoke from the average cigarette contains around 4,000 chemicals, some of which are highly toxic, and at least 43 of which cause cancer. Nicotine, a major constituent of tobacco smoke, is poisonous and highly addictive.